Brazil: Well Educated, Elites Flee As Poor Bear The Brunt of Violence, Austerity

“I’m totally freaked out by what’s happening, especially here in Rio,” said 40-year-old soap opera star and father of three, Thiago Lacerda. SOURCE In recent years, Brazil’s wealthy along with its highly-educated University graduates, doctors, lawyers, even TV and film stars, have been fleeing the South American country to places such as Portugal, Miami and Orlando (in United States) in search of stability as the poor continue to bear the brunt of the ongoing political and economic crisis. “I’m totally freaked out by what’s happening, especially here in Rio,” said 40-year-old soap opera star and father of three, Thiago Lacerda. Considering relocating to Europe for the sake of his children, he said: “in several years, they’re not going to want to go out, to start dating, without worrying about getting shot.” This option hasn’t been the case for working-class or low-income families who’ve been the victims of violence, in some cases perpetrated by the state security forces. Such has been the case for the families of slain Black activist and Rio de Janeiro city councilwoman, Marielle Franco, and 14-year-old student Marcos Vinicius da Silva, both raised in the Complexo da Mare favela complex in Rio de Janeiro, a city under federal military occupation. “Murder has become a normal part of life,” a New York Times feature reported last year, stressing that impunity has been a driving factor in the number of homicides. “People kill because they can get away with it. They kill to gain territorial control, to traffic drugs, to settle political disputes,” the article said. One out of 10 homicide victims around the world each year is a Brazilian, the country is the fourth-largest firearms manufacturer in the world, and a deep recession has left unemployment at over 12 percent, according to News.com.au. Brazil’s Foreign Ministry notes that over three million citizens have migrated, mostly to the United States, however, Portugal is quickly becoming a destination for migrants. As the elites and well-educated and skilled pack up their bags in search of stability and opportunities, the Senate-imposed government of Michel Temer has announced a 2019 budget proposal, which may bring an end the country’s educational program offering grants to graduate students in the scientific fields. The warning was made by Abilio Baeta, president of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (Capes). He stressed that the budget control “gravely” affects the program and that the proposal may affect “93,000 students and researchers, interrupting the graduate incentive programs throughout the country.” The Temer government faces historically low approval ratings and has already sparked heated controversy with the approval of a 20-year freeze on public spending that will affect the country’s budgets for education, health, culture and social programs, as well as approved a labor reform program, stripping away workers’ rights. COMMENT Mr. Lacerda wants his family to be safe and to prosper. That is natural to want for most parents, but going to Europe cannot guarantee that. In fact, it seems that much of the world has the same idea and Europe is paying the price for it. Is it fair to say, that something is going to give eventually? Is it too many people competing for dwindling resources and relatively shrinking available habitats? It seems that violence is on the increase and few, if any, regimes can address the dilemma. One thing does seem to be that things are set to get a whole lot worse before they get better if at all. Will we have no other choice but to hop to other worlds however brutal they may be to live on? [simple-payment id=”741″] [contact-form][contact-field label=”Name” type=”name” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Email” type=”email” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Comment” type=”textarea” required=”1″ /][/contact-form]]]>

The Poor Life of An Apprentice Chimney Sweep – The History of Children at Work Part 2 of 5

An increase in child apprentice chimney sweeps came from an attempt to be more humanitarian Produced by: Owlcation for Education

Children were apprentice chimney sweeps throughout Europe for several hundred years, and were as common in England as any place else.

However, while abuses also occurred in other countries, the abuses related to sending children up small, long chimneys occurred mainly in London and other large cities in England and Ireland.

In other countries in Europe, and in Scotland, while some master sweeps used small apprentices for chimney cleaning, the smallest chimneys were more commonly cleaned with a lead ball and brush attached to a rope. This was not true in England and Ireland; it was unusual for a small child not to be sent up a small chimney.

In England, another great increase in the use of small children as chimney sweeps occurred after 1773. Oddly enough, the increase in this abusive trade was caused by an attempt to be more humanitarian.

At that time, an Englishman named Jonah Hanway returned from a trip to China, where he had learned that no questions were asked when new-born Chinese babies were killed by their parents. He decided to confirm for himself that the English were more compassionate. He began by investigating the workhouses.

To his horror, he found that 68 out of 76 children had died within a year in one workhouse, and 16 out of 18 children had died within a year in another. The worst, though, was that, for 14 years in a row, no children at all had survived for a year in a third workhouse.

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He reported this to Parliament. As they were responsible for the safety of children in workhouses and orphanages, they ordered an investigation. The investigation found that death rates were also high in many other workhouses; in addition, the investigation found that only about 7 out of every hundred children survived for a year after being placed in an orphanage.

To mend this terrible situation, in 1773 Parliament passed an act that children couldn’t be kept in a workhouse for longer than 3 weeks. Then they had to be boarded out. The effect of this act was that small children became much more available not only to chimney sweeps, but to a lot of other business owners who were looking for cheap, expendable labour.

Powerless children were made apprentice chimney sweeps

From 1773, master chimney sweeps regularly kept anywhere from 2 to 20 children, depending on how many they could use for their business. For each child, the master sweep was paid 3-4 pounds by the government when the apprenticeship agreement was signed.

Often poor parents were faced with a choice of either finding someplace to send their small children or watching them starve. In those cases, the master sweep took the child directly from the parents and paid them a few shillings. While this was also called an apprenticeship, the parents many times never saw the child again or knew if it had survived.

Homeless children were also snatched off the street by master sweepers, and pressed into apprenticeship. This practice was sanctioned by the government, based on the theory that the children were better working than being little criminals.

Most people assume that both the master and the child apprentices were always male. This wasn’t the case. Many girls also climbed chimneys, and if they survived to adulthood, just as the boys did, some of them became journeymen in their teens, and eventually master sweepers, too.

The legal arrangement for apprenticeship was indentured servitude. The agreement defined the master’s duties as providing the child with food, clothes, shelter and at least one bath a week, with access to church, while the master was training the child in the chimney sweep trade.

On the child’s side, the agreement stated that the child gladly did what the master said to do, didn’t harm the master, tell his secrets, lend his gear or waste his resources, and worked the entire time with no pay. The agreement did not include a limit on the number of hours a child worked each day.

The apprenticeship agreement also stated that the child wouldn’t frequent gaming or drinking establishments. The child would receive money either by being paid a few coppers after the master determined that the child was worth it – if a master was honorable – or by begging from families who had their chimneys cleaned.

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In Part 3: Children were not only expected to put up with little care, but they were expected to find customers. The apprentice chimney sweeps did work that was too dangerous for anyone to do.

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Leftists are decadent and need to read history

Modern Leftists are decadent and spoiled. Many are ignorant of the hardships of the past. They arrogantly claim to represent ‘oppressed groups’ when most have very little in common. The Leftist elites are the bourgeoisie that George Orwell would have despised. [wpvideo Yhrgn4t5]   If you are feeling generous please donate. [simple-payment id=”741″]   [contact-form][contact-field label=”Name” type=”name” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Email” type=”email” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Website” type=”url” /][contact-field label=”Comment” type=”textarea” required=”1″ /][/contact-form]]]>

The Poor Life of An Apprentice Chimney Sweep – The History of Children at Work Part 1 of 5

Apprenticeships could be honourable agreements, but too many apprentice chimney sweeps were treated as slaves

Produced by Owlcation for Education

Chimney1

Apprenticeships, which allowed children to be trained in a trade, and allowed businesses to have cheap labour, were informally practiced throughout history.

In Britain and other countries in Europe, legal apprenticeship agreements were being signed by the 15th century, and legal agreements for apprenticeship are still being used today in some places.

On the whole, apprenticeships have been very useful when both parties are working together. However, certain trades and certain periods in history have lent themselves to severe abuse of apprenticed children.

For apprentice chimney sweeps, the worst abuses occurred in England immediately before and during the Industrial Revolution, and during the Victorian Era, when thousands of people came to the cities seeking work. Many of them found either no work or work with wages guaranteed to keep them in poverty for the rest of their lives.

In England in the late 16th century, the problems caused by great numbers of unemployed and under-paid workers in the cities became severe. Justices were given authority over the children of poor families, and began to assign them to apprenticeships to provide them with work, food and shelter.

Chimney2Abuses became much more common as the children of the poor became available through justices placing them in apprenticeships. For master chimney sweeps, these small, underfed children of powerless or absent parents were perfect for sending up chimneys. Thus, they were the apprentices chosen most often in this trade.

While other apprenticeships lasted a standard seven years, master chimney sweeps could sometimes obligate the children to an apprenticeship for several years more. As these apprenticeships were generally unsupervised once the papers were signed, the children were completely dependent on the good heart and generosity of their masters. This meant that many were basically sold into seven years or more of cruel slavery.

     

Smaller chimneys and more complicated flues were potential death traps for the children

After the Great Fire of London in 1666, when buildings were replaced, fire codes were also put in place. While they did help fire safety, they also complicated the configurations of chimney flues.

The buildings were sometimes four stories high, with much smaller chimney flues than were previously used. (Smaller chimneys became normal when coal came into use, because they created better draft for fires.)

This arrangement could easily mean that a chimney of 9″ by 14″ could extend 60 feet or more, with many corners, turns and twists to accommodate living space. The chimneys then clustered on the roof, and extended up to expel the smoke high away from the building. While London was by far the largest city in Britain, other good-sized cities throughout Britain quickly followed suit with their new construction.

Chimney flues had several twists and turns, both because they were being built around living space, and because they were often attached to other flues within the building to share a chimney opening. Combining flues into one chimney top was more frequently done after the 1664 change in the hearth tax, as it helped to reduce the number of chimney tops – if a roof had over 2 chimney tops, each top was taxed.

As the chimneys became smaller to burn coal and number of turns and corners in the flues increased, the flues gathered ash, soot and creosote much more quickly than the larger, straighter chimneys had. They also needed cleaning more often (usually 3 or 4 times per year). This was not only because chimney fires were a danger, but because the coal fumes could kill if they were allowed to build up in the houses.

Chimney3a

Even if a chimney didn’t prove too hot when an apprentice entered it to clean, the chimney flues were pitch black, claustrophobic, potentially full of suffocating soot and confusing to navigate in the dark. It was dangerous enough work, even when the master chimney sweep tried to do well by the apprentices. The children not only had to go up these tight, dark chimneys, they had to come back down them after the work was done.

Unfortunately, the turns, twists, and merges of the chimney flues behind the walls of tall buildings created a confusing, pitch black and soot-filled maze that could sometimes be deadly to a young apprentice chimney sweep trying to make it to the roof.

If the apprentice climbed the whole chimney, cleaning it from hearth to rooftop, and exited a row of chimneys, he could forget which chimney he came out of. When that happened, he could go back down the wrong one, or go down the right chimney, but make a wrong turn at some merging of the flues. Children could suffocate or burn to death by getting lost on the way down, and accidentally entering the wrong chimney flue.

  Chimney3b

In Part 2:  An increase in child apprentice chimney sweeps came from an attempt to be more humanitarian. Powerless children were made apprentice chimney sweeps.

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Venezuela Launches “Petros” Cryptocurrency Amid Growing Skepticism

by Shawn Gordon , Staff writer,  http://www.newsnow.co.uk   Feb 21, 2018     [gallery ids="790,789" type="rectangular"]

With crushing debt and a starving population, the Maduro government in Venezuela is launching what it says is the world’s first sovereign cryptocurrency.     [gallery ids="791,792" type="rectangular"]

Mr Maduro tweeted: “To big problems, great solutions! From the first minute the game started well, and we started winning: 4.777 billion yuan or 735 million dollars is the initial result of the operations of purchase intent of the Petro.

The cryptocurrency is designed to bypass U.S. government sanctions against the socialist regime. The “Petros” cryptocurrency will have an initial value tied to the price of a barrel of Venezuelan crude oil in mid-January, which was $60 per barrel, with a target of 100 million Petros to be sold. The U.S. Treasury Department warned that the move may violate last year’s sanctions, while Venezuelan opposition leaders say the sale constitutes an illegal issuing of debt. After the first day of trading, President Maduro claimed to have raised $735 million. State officials are claiming a 5x increase in traffic to the website, but some critics, including Venezuelan product designer and cryptocurrency writer Alejandro Machado, are skeptical. In speaking with Bitcoin Magazine, Machado commented that he was unable to find any transactions on the blockchain regarding Petros and, while the token was originally slated to be released on the Ethereum network, it since has transitioned to NEM. “The government hasn’t confirmed that this is the address, but they confirmed they’re using NEM, and it’s the only mosaic matching the Petro description,” Machado said. “The mosaic’s metadata also uses similar phrasing to the white paper.” Machado has been writing about the upcoming Petros since early December 2017, remarking, “Many think it’s yet another episode of empty propaganda, but I profoundly disagree: chavismo is facing the existential danger of running out of funds, and they’re betting heavily on the Petro.” His skepticism about the plan runs deep: “No doubt aware of their terrible track record, the government is incentivizing participation in the private sale by offering a 60% discount. What company in the world would sell 38 million units of a product for less than half their market value? A company that doesn’t intend to ship you the product after you buy, of course.” With $150 billion in foreign debt, quadruple-digit inflation, the collapse of their oil output, and crushing sanctions by the U.S. and the EU, the Venezuelan government has become increasingly creative in ways to generate revenue. Petros represent nothing more than a promise against the 300 million barrels of oil that Venezuela believes they can recover but have yet to pull from the ground. There is an additional problem that U.S.-based investors purchasing the Petros would be in violation of American sanctions and could find themselves in trouble with Uncle Sam.

The Hill :  Venezuela’s cryptocurrency is a farce

Man afire after gas tank explodes240748  Demonstrators set alleged thief on fire247137Venezuela 171104-utrera-venezuela-hero_hdxyl5Violence and dire poverty have become a feature of every day life for many Venezuelans.

Venezuela ‘rakes in $735 million in ONE DAY’ from new oil-backed petro crytocurrency

  • Other nations are toying with the idea to create a cryptocurrency in order to get around sanctions.
  • President Putin has commissioned a national cryptocurrency called the CryptoRuble.
  • Sergei Glazev, an economic adviser to the Russian leader, told a government meeting that the cryptocurrency would serve as a “useful tool” to evade western economic sanctions. Mr Glazev said: “This instrument suits us very well for sensitive activity on behalf of the state. We can settle accounts with our counterparties all over the world with no regard for sanctions.”
  • The Kremlin can track the moves of the cryptoruble, although whether the Bank of Russia begins to issue remains to be seen.
  • The Russian Association of Cryptocurrency and Blockchain (RACIB) has announced that the CryptoRuble, will be launched in the middle of 2019.
Related articles:

Venezuela’s Ethereum-based Petro is ‘desperate attempt’ to bypass US sanctions

Petro investors could violate sanctions

Petro coin price: What is el Petro cryptocurrency and can YOU buy some?

Comment:  With desperate economies trying their luck by gambling on cryptocurrencies, what is going to be the outcome? Is the world heading for an economic catastrophe on an unprecedented scale?  ]]>