Water Might Be All Over the Moon, New Research Shows
By Kasandra Brabaw, Space.com Contributor | February 27, 2018 07:10am ETThe moon’s water may be spread across its surface more evenly than researchers thought.In 2009, three spacecraft confirmed that water exists on the moon, but until now, astronomers thought most of that water was confined to “cold traps” at the moon’s poles. Now, a new analysis of two lunar missions throws doubt on that theory and suggests that water could actually be spread across the moon’s surface.
There’s a general trend of increasing water content toward the moon’s poles. The Apollo landing sites are marked in yellow. Credit: Brown University
The analysis, published in the journal Nature Geoscience on Feb. 12, could help researchers understand where the moon’s water comes from and how helpful the water would be as a resource for Earth, whether it’s collected for drinking water or converted into hydrogen and oxygen for rocket fuel or into air for future space explorers.Although this new analysis doesn’t give researchers a sense of how accessible the water is, it does suggest that both H2O and OH (a molecule known as hydroxyl) are spread across the moon’s surface and can be found day and night. [The Search for Water on the Moon in Photos]“We find that it doesn’t matter what time of day or which latitude we look at; the signal indicating water always seems to be present,” Joshua Bandfield, a senior research scientist with the Space Science Institute and lead author of the study, said in a statement from NASA. “The presence of water doesn’t appear to depend on the composition of the surface, and the water sticks around.”Previous studies suggested that water and hydroxyl — a relative of H2O that’s made with just one oxygen molecule and one hydrogen molecule — were found mostly at the poles in “cold traps,” regions that are so cold that water vapor and other volatiles will remain stable there for up to several billion years. The researchers also found that the strength of the reflective signal used to detect water depended on the lunar day (which is equal to 29.5 Earth days), the statement said.
The same article includes a 7 minute video from NASA explaining the evolution of the Moon. For those who doubt that men ever went to the moon, there are pictures of Apollo 17’s visit there in the form of the lunar lander, rover and human tracks on the surface.
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[caption id="attachment_857" align="alignnone" width="300"] The TRUTH is often a surprise[/caption]]]>
Aluminium oxynitride or AlON is a ceramic composed of aluminium, oxygen and nitrogen. It is marketed under the name ALON by Surmet Corporation. ALON is optically transparent in the near-ultraviolet, visible and midwave-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Technology and Manufacturing Capabilities
ALON® or Aluminum Oxynitride is an amazing and unique transparent advanced ceramic that is polycrystalline (made from powder) with a cubic spinel crystal structure. In the popular media and in the Star Trek community, it is commonly referred to as Transparent Aluminum. Surmet is the only company globally, that manufactures ALON®.Taking over the development of ALON® from a laboratory demonstration stage in 2002, Surmet is proud to announce the commercial availability of ALON® in large volumes and in really large sizes. Over the last 12 years, Surmet has invested large sums of monies to build up its vertically integrated optical ceramics manufacturing capability. Surmet gratefully acknowledges US DOD funding help in this accomplishment. Creating such a capability required a great deal of patience and attention to detail, and complete commitment, as the return on investment for new technology materials is a slow, uncertain and painstaking endeavour.
ALON® Optical Ceramic’s Key Features
Transparent:High optical transmission (>85%) near-UV to mid-IR wavelengths (0.25 to 4.0 μm)
Crystal clear:Excellent clarity and no inherent birefringence
Durable:Outstanding hardness, scratch resistance and high strength
High quality:Excellent Refractive index homogeneity over large areas
Commercially available:Available in large sizes up to 18×35-in windows as well as in various shapes including hyperhemispherical and hemispherical domes in large quantities..
Robust process:Produced using very robust process with consistently high quality and yields
Enormous Broad Application Potential:Applicable to a wide variety of industries where combination of high transparency and durability are needed. Examples include aerospace, security, defense and semiconductor, Energy, mining and consumer products.
Aluminium oxynitride or AlON is a ceramic composed of aluminium, oxygen and nitrogen. It is marketed under the name ALON by Surmet Corporation. AlON is optically transparent (≥80%) in the near-ultraviolet, visible and midwave-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Read More]]>
Luke or “Duke” as he is better known, is a gardening aficionado and Lead of Noel Park, North London. Find out how his nature reserve project has helped neighbours come together to improve their local community space. Duke, tell us about this project. How long have you been doing this and when did you start?
A few months ago, I was approached by a representative of Team Noel Park (an employee of the council) and discussed the possibility of creating a nature reserve within the local area. As a partner with the Noel Park Big Local that leads the Green Spaces Project, proprietor of Dukes Gardens; a local gardening business, and Chairman of GrowN22; a local non profit organisation managing green Spaces in Haringey, I literally jumped at the chance to project manage the land. The Westbury Banks Nature Reserve was a disused piece of land left over from the Noel Park railway, essentially it’s a bank. Over time, it became derelict and unfortunately a fly tipping hotspot. The plan is to clean the site and establish a functional nature reserve. I have spent the past three months planning and more recently working on the site with Clean Up UK and neighbours on Nextdoor. What kinds of activity are your neighbours helping with?
As the reserve has been derelict for some time, the top priority has been to clean the site by litter picking and removing all rubbish. Unfortunately, the site was used by drug users and we have made a real effort to dispose of any needles using a needle box and destroying them in the correct manner. Neighbours have come together to collect litter and clear the overgrowth, which has enabled us to construct the log path and stairway. As we’ve worked together, we’ve discussed lots of exciting projects planned for the reserve and these include a potential composting site, an amphibious area with a pond, insect motels, wildlife and plant species cataloguing as well as a mural from a local artist! Did you need any special planning permissions from the council?
Yes, I had to get written permission from Haringey Council to act as the project manager and sought permission from the Highways agency to install a storage unit for community tools. I had to get insurance for anyone working on the site and I did this via TCV (https://www.tcv.org.uk/). The insurance covers anyone engaged in any work whilst on site. Also, anyone that visits the site must sign in in case of any emergencies. So, do neighbours need to bring tools and special equipment to participate?
We recommend neighbours wear comfortable clothing, bring gloves and ideally boots but it’s not essential. We have tools on site which include spades, shovels, secateurs, litter pickers, bin bags and hoes. If neighbours have tools and can bring them, they are very welcome too. We really needed a wheelbarrow last week! If someone can’t make every Sunday, do you give them extra hard work the next time they come?!
Absolutely not, I believe people of all walks of life can provide various skills that would be beneficial to the site and to other people to learn about different things. So no matter what skill set you have there is and will be various things for people to do! This way, I believe that nobody will feel left out and they would be comfortable in what they are doing – it’s such a nice way to meet people locally. Why is it important for the community to get involved with this project?
The Westbury Banks Nature Reserve is a community lead project and a green space for the Noel Park estate and beyond! Environmentally, I would encourage anyone to take more notice of their surroundings and look after what they have before it’s too late! How can Nextdoor help you?
Nextdoor has provided me with a tool to contact people that live nearby about something I think is important and that they could very easily become involved in. It’s easy to use, I just post an event and attach photos to a post to keep neighbours up to date. We’ve received plenty of support. If someone were reading this and wanted to start their own project, what advice would you give them?
I would dedicate a lot of time to research and planning. Ensure you cover everything prior to doing any work on a site. Ensure you have written permission from your local authority. Engage the local community to judge interest levels. Make sure your covered with the correct insurance – TCV (https://www.tcv.org.uk/) is a great starting point! Look into various funding and pick whichever is suitable. Finally, stick with your project, devise a plan and slowly but surely the community will come together to help make your project a success. Good luck everyone!
To cover up their insidious fascist agenda, Democrats loudly accuse President Trump and other Republicans of being Nazis—an obvious lie, considering the GOP has been fighting the Democrats over slavery, genocide, racism and fascism from the beginning.
The big lie is now back, and this time it is about the role of fascism and Nazism in American politics. The political Left—backed by the mainstream of the Democratic Party—insists that Donald Trump is an American version of Hitler or Mussolini. The GOP, they say, is the new incarnation of the Nazi Party. These charges become the basis and rationalization for seeking to destroy Trump and his allies by any means necessary. The “fascism card” is also used to intimidate conservatives and Republicans into renouncing Trump for fear themselves of being branded and smeared. Nazism, after all, is the ultimate form of hate, and association with it, the ultimate hate crime.In this book, I turn the tables on the Democratic Left and show that they—not Trump—are the real fascists. They are the ones who use Nazi bullying and intimidation tactics and subscribe to a full-blown fascist ideology. The charges that they make against Trump and the GOP are actually applicable to them. The self-styled opponents of hate are the actual practitioners of the politics of hate. Through a process of transference, leftists blame their victims for being and doing what they themselves are and do. In a sick inversion, the real fascists in American politics masquerade as anti-fascists and accuse the real anti-fascists of being fascists.
Dinesh D’Souza explodes the Left’s big lie. He expertly exonerates President Trump and his supporters, then uncovers the Democratic Left’s long, cozy relationship with Nazism: how the racist and genocidal acts of early Democrats inspired Adolf Hitler’s campaign of death; how fascist philosophers influenced the great 20th century lions of the American Left; and how today’s anti-free speech, anti-capitalist, anti-religious liberty, pro-violence Democratic Party is a frightening simulacrum of the Nazi Party.
Hitler coined the term “the big lie” to describe a lie that “the great masses of the people” will fall for precisely because of how bold and monstrous the lie is. In The Big Lie, D’Souza shows that the Democratic Left’s orchestrated campaign to paint President Trump and conservatives as Nazis to cover up its own fascism is, in fact, the biggest lie of all.
“THE SOUTH” DIDN’T PERPETRATE SLAVERY, THESE PEOPLE DID.”
300,000 Americans fought a bloody and deadly war to end slavery, most of them white. “America,” or even “the South,” didn’t perpetrate and defend slavery—the blame for that rests squarely on the Democratic Party.
D’SOUZA ACCUSES DEMOCRATS OF RUNNING NEW SLAVE PLANTATIONS
Where are Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson’s protests when inner cities keep blacks in a vicious dependency cycle? Where are the leftists taking a knee in front of school boards that run schools where young Hispanics don’t learn anything?
vailable now, Dinesh D’Souza’s new book The Big Lie exposes the Left’s biggest lie yet: their campaign to paint conservatives as Nazis to cover up their own fascism. The Big Lie is an explosive new book from Dinesh D’Souza, author of the #1 New York Times bestsellers Hillary’s America, America, and Obama’s America.What is “the big lie” of the Democratic Party? That conservatives—and President Donald Trump in particular—are fascists. Nazis, even. In a typical comment, MSNBC host Rachel Maddow says the Trump era is reminiscent of “what it was like when Hitler first became chancellor.”But in fact, this audacious lie is a complete inversion of the truth. Yes, there is a fascist threat in America—but that threat is from the Left and the Democratic Party. The Democratic left has an ideology virtually identical with fascism and routinely borrows tactics of intimidation and political terror from the Nazi Brownshirts.
By Rafi Letzter, Staff Writer | February 15, 2018 06:50am ET
There’s a whiff of something radioactive in the air.A research plane flying over the Aleutian Islands on Aug. 3, 2016 detected a single speck of enriched uranium floating about 4.3 miles (7 kilometers) above Alaska’s far-western island chain, according to a new research paper that will be published in April in The Journal of Environmental Radioactivity.The uranium sample was tiny and harmless, a small chunk of a mote of dust just 580 nanometers wide (about half the size of a red blood cell). And it was completely alone; no other radioactive material turned up in that stretch of sky. But, the researchers wrote, it was “definitely not from a natural source.”And the scientists can’t explain how it got there. The plane’s onboard mass spectrometer, brought along to analyze standard-issue pollution, detected just a single uranium particle, mixed with traces of chemicals from burning oil, the authors reported. And on its own, that find wouldn’t be too remarkable — uranium is the heaviest element commonly found on Earth, after all.“Particulate matter containing uranium can originate from sources such as combustion of coals with trace uranium, windblown crustal material, and mining and processing of ores, whether it be for the uranium itself or other minerals such as rare earths [a group of chemically similar elements that aren’t actually that rare, but are difficult to mine] and phosphate,” the researchers wrote. [The 10 Greatest Explosions Ever]What makes this particle unusual is that it was rich in an isotope called uranium-235, or U-235, which made up about 2.6 percent to 3.6 percent of its mass, according to the paper. Naturally occurring uranium typically contains just 0.7 percent U-235, with the rest given over to the much more common uranium-238.
On April 4, 2011 the Department of Education issued its “Dear Colleague” letter to colleges and universities across the United States, requiring administrators to determine the guilt and innocence of students accused of felony sexual assault, and to reach their conclusions independent of whatever the police and courts decide. Complicating this, many schools lack the resources, processes, and procedural safeguards of the criminal justice system to accurately determine guilt or innocence.
Predictably, a wave of lawsuits soon erupted by young men, alleging such claims as due process violations, gender bias, breach of contract, and more. This remains a growing area of legal precedents, as more attorneys are taking up these cases, and as more such cases are working their way through various channels of the legal system.
The ‘Dear Colleague Letter’ associated with Title IX was a fascistic attack mainly against male students that violated their legal rights through the denial of due process.
In aftermath of the hysteria surrounding ‘rape culture’ on campus, Jonathan Taylor set up Title IX for All to provide support for those who have been maliciously accused. The database provided tracks lawsuits by students against higher education schools which – they allege – have violated their rights in the pursuit of investigating and adjudicating sexual assault. It serves as a unique go-to resource for attorneys, parents, students, teachers, reporters, researchers, advocates, and school administrators.