Water on the Moon

Water Might Be All Over the Moon, New Research Shows By Kasandra Brabaw, Space.com Contributor | February 27, 2018 07:10am ET The moon’s water may be spread across its surface more evenly than researchers thought. In 2009, three spacecraft confirmed that water exists on the moon, but until now, astronomers thought most of that water was confined to “cold traps” at the moon’s poles. Now, a new analysis of two lunar missions throws doubt on that theory and suggests that water could actually be spread across the moon’s surface.

1st Map of Water on the Moon Could Aid Future Lunar Exploration

Moon Water Map
There’s a general trend of increasing water content toward the moon’s poles. The Apollo landing sites are marked in yellow.  Credit: Brown University
  The analysis, published in the journal Nature Geoscience on Feb. 12, could help researchers understand where the moon’s water comes from and how helpful the water would be as a resource for Earth, whether it’s collected for drinking water or converted into hydrogen and oxygen for rocket fuel or into air for future space explorers. Although this new analysis doesn’t give researchers a sense of how accessible the water is, it does suggest that both H2O and OH (a molecule known as hydroxyl) are spread across the moon’s surface and can be found day and night. [The Search for Water on the Moon in Photos] “We find that it doesn’t matter what time of day or which latitude we look at; the signal indicating water always seems to be present,” Joshua Bandfield, a senior research scientist with the Space Science Institute and lead author of the study, said in a statement from NASA. “The presence of water doesn’t appear to depend on the composition of the surface, and the water sticks around.” Previous studies suggested that water and hydroxyl — a relative of H2O that’s made with just one oxygen molecule and one hydrogen molecule — were found mostly at the poles in “cold traps,” regions that are so cold that water vapor and other volatiles will remain stable there for up to several billion years. The researchers also found that the strength of the reflective signal used to detect water depended on the lunar day (which is equal to 29.5 Earth days), the statement said.

For full article CLICK HERE to go to Space.com

The same article includes a 7 minute video from NASA explaining the evolution of the Moon. For those who doubt that men ever went to the moon, there are pictures of Apollo 17’s visit there in the form of the lunar lander, rover and human tracks on the surface. Evidence of Apollo17 mission on moon's surface [gallery ids="866,869" type="rectangular"]   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itkRTEc4VKQ   [caption id="attachment_857" align="alignnone" width="300"] The TRUTH is often a surprise[/caption]]]>

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    ALON page_IR sensor_recce_icon ALON page_IR domes_icon ALON page_armor icon2ALON page_armor icon1 Aluminium oxynitride or AlON is a ceramic composed of aluminiumoxygen and nitrogen. It is marketed under the name ALON by Surmet Corporation. AlON is optically transparent (≥80%) in the near-ultraviolet, visible and midwave-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.  Read More]]>

    Iceland proposes to ban circumcision male circumcision for the protection of boys

    The Icelandic Parliament proposed a bill that makes it illegal for any parent to would penalize a parent circumcise their baby or infant son for non-medical reasons. To do so risks a conviction and sentence of up to six years in prison if the procedure is undertaken for religious purposes or non-medical reasons. I can only say “Hoorah to Iceland!” How can it not be seen as an abuse to deliberately mutilate a child for no good reason whether they be a girl or a boy? There are very doubtful medical benefits of carrying out such an atrocity against a defenceless child. The usual claims that cutting of the foreskin helps prevent various sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lowers the risk of urinary infection is little more than a fiction. In fact in Africa where there has been a UN backed campaign to encourage the procedure has led people to mistakenly believe that they are immune to HIV and STis. What is more of  realistic problem is that, with any form of surgery, there is always a risk of it going wrong so why do it if it is unnecessary? There is a lot of bleeding and swelling and, in the case of babies whose immune system has not fully developed, an increased risk of infection.   [gallery ids="838,837" type="rectangular"] The proposed ban would mean, in effect, that Jews and Muslims would be forced to break an alleged central command of their religious dogmas. Lets face it though, most religions should and must accept the need for adjustments. If it was the belief that the little finger of the left hand were to be severed would anyone not find that repulsive? MP Silja Dögg Gunnarsdóttir of Iceland’s Progressive Party who introduced the bill earlier this year said : We are talking about children’s rights, not about freedom of belief. Everyone has the right to believe in what they want, but the rights of children come above the right to believe.” Protests about the ban boil down to: The rights of the child versus freedom of religion.  2014-02-16-circumcision-its-traditional-why-stop In 2013, The Council of Europe passed a resolution condemning the practice as a “violation of the physical integrity of children,” and in 2012, a German judge ruled that circumcision constituted harm against a child. In that case, it boy was a four year old boy who had suffered complications after the operation. The German government later clarified declared that it remained legal if performed by a trained professional. The Iceland situation has made the small country a test case for a ban since it only has a Jewish population of 250 and a Muslim one of 15,000 amongst a total population of 350,000. In spite of half the population claiming to be religious, Iceland is apparently in the top ten of the world’s most atheist populations. Perhaps this sets for another angle of the divide between secularism and human rights?  If the law is passed, there is a very good chance that the country’s Jews and Muslims would either disobey it or have the procedure performed abroad. It is estimated that about a third of all men are circumcised. This is not far short of 100% for Muslims. It would be impossible for Canada, the United States, and any European nation to prevent their Jewish and Muslim populations, often numbering millions, to stop circumcising their sons. In the UK, it has been illegal to carry out FGM for many years but, to my knowledge, there have been no prosecutions to date while the practice continues to mutilate hundreds of girls.

    Iceland Most Advanced State in Europe, Proposes Banning Male Genital Mutilation by Styxhexenhammer666

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnajqfrWV4o The European Jewish Congress spoke for most Jewish organizations when it said the ban would “guarantee that no Jewish community will be established” in the country, and that “Iceland would be the only country to ban one of the most central, if not the most central rite in the Jewish tradition in modern times,” constituting an attack on Judaism “in a way that concerns Jews all over the world.” Numerous Muslim leaders have echoed those fears from an Islamic standpoint. Others go further, and have suggested that this is part of some greater campaign of anti-Semitism and Islamophobia. This is an emotive and exaggerated claim since there are Jewish and Muslim people who support the end of FGM and MGM. Not all Muslims and Jews favour circumcision. This is the Facebook address for Muslims opposed to MGM:  https://www.facebook.com/muslimsagainstcirc/?hc_ref=ARQvaycFLxobI_lbxg8c65SnqtpTjJnUVd1wsm0STnKSrZm_6Ua5Xwd361VyOnv8YuQ&fref=nf   For a Jewish opposition contact the Jewish Circumcision Resource Center (an educational organization in Boston, USA). This is their statement on the practice: “”We want Jews to know that in this country and abroad, some Jews do not circumcise their sons. Circumcision is a choice, and now that we know the serious harm caused by circumcision, there are strong reasons to forgo it.”   Ronald Goldman, Ph.D., Executive Director. Dr. Goldman is the author of Questioning Circumcision: A Jewish Perspective, endorsed by five rabbis. http://www.jewishcircumcision.org/62011NewsRelease.htm Dr. Goldman also suggests that Jews think about the ethics of causing significant pain and cutting off a natural, healthy body part that has important functions. “There are psychological effects of circumcision, too. Some Jewish men are very dissatisfied, angry, or distressed about being circumcised,” said Dr. Goldman. The Center’s statement also seeks to assure Jews that as the subject of circumcision gets more critical attention from Jews and others, the Jewish Circumcision Resource Center will reject any statement or action from circumcision opponents that may be disrespectful or insensitive to Jews and others. The Center’s primary intended audience is those Jews who generally evaluate an idea not solely based on its conformance with the Torah, but also in light of its agreement with reason and experience. For those Jews who decide against circumcision, there are over a dozen rabbis who will lead an alternative welcoming ceremony for baby boys called a brit shalom. Contact Details: For Jewish people or those who are interested in a Jewish perspective contact the centre to find out more at: Jewish Circumcision Resource Center P.O. Box 232 Boston, MA 02133 (617) 523-0088 Ronald Goldman, Ph.D. Executive Director  jcrc@jewishcircumcision.org   The UK Campaign Prominent UK campaigners such as Mike Buchanan of the party Justice For Men and Boys included this in their 2015 election manifesto: “The law in the UK forbids all forms of female genital mutilation (FGM) including those which have less impact on females than male genital mutilation (MGM) has on males. FGM is justifiably regarded as a human rights issue and the law makes no accommodation for religious or cultural considerations. MGM is a human rights issue too, but boys are not accorded the same rights to protection as girls. It is right to be concerned about girl’s rights not to have their genitals mutilated, and it is right to be concerned about boys’ rights not to have their genitals mutilated. If genital mutilation is illegal for girls, why shouldn’t it be illegal for boys? Everyone in a modern society should be accorded the same rights irrespective of gender. With adults, it’s a different matter. It’s right that adults should be able to make decisions about their own bodies. Adults are in a position to give informed consent to surgical procedures, but babies and children aren’t in such a position. In the vast majority of cases, genital mutilation is performed solely for cultural or religious reasons. This applies to boys as well as girls. Both MGM and FGM frequently lead to complications, however sometimes resulting in death, from bleeding. Furthermore, it’s now widely accepted in medical circles that MGM doesn’t have the health benefits (for males or their partners) which were at one time widely claimed, and the practice is increasingly being opposed by people in religious traditions which have long required or recommended it. MGM can lead to numerous physical problems. MGM results in a considerable reduction in the sensitivity of the penis, reducing circumcised men’s pleasure during sex just as some forms of FGM reduce sexual pleasure in women. MGM can also lead to mental health problems, when men become resentful and angry at the assaults carried out on them when they were babies or children. Quite apart from potential adverse physical and mental health consequences, a number of authorities are strongly opposed to MGM on ethical grounds. foreskindiagram Brian D Earp, Research Fellow at the University of Oxford, Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics, recently published, ‘Female genital mutilation (FGM) and male circumcision: Should there be a separate ethical discourse?’ Contact: https://j4mb.org.uk/ For me, if God has made us with the aim of us being perfect, then why is this piece of skin on a small child so offensive that it has to be hacked off? I am a believer in God, but I do not believe that that attacking a child with a knife is God’s will. Doctors continue to circumcise little babies for a few main reasons:
    • They are business people who have bills to pay and circumcision is a quick, easy buck.
    • They have not yet been educated in the important functions of the foreskin.
    • They haven’t yet realized their legal liability. The American Medical Association (AMA) has warned its members to “take the high road of ethics,” but it has not yet been specific enough to warn them of the dangers of this simple, profitable, profoundly abusive procedure.
    • They have ignored the actual best interests of their patients and have put aside the pledge of their Hippocratic oath. “At first do no harm.” 

    For More on the Iceland Issue

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    Next Door Blog – community story

    Written by Roisin O’Neill
    Luke or “Duke” as he is better known, is a gardening aficionado and Lead of Noel Park, North London. Find out how his nature reserve project has helped neighbours come together to improve their local community space. Duke, tell us about this project. How long have you been doing this and when did you start? A few months ago, I was approached by a representative of Team Noel Park (an employee of the council) and discussed the possibility of creating a nature reserve within the local area. As a partner with the Noel Park Big Local that leads the Green Spaces Project, proprietor of Dukes Gardens; a local gardening business, and Chairman of GrowN22; a local non profit organisation managing green Spaces in Haringey, I literally jumped at the chance to project manage the land. The Westbury Banks Nature Reserve was a disused piece of land left over from the Noel Park railway, essentially it’s a bank. Over time, it became derelict and unfortunately a fly tipping hotspot. The plan is to clean the site and establish a functional nature reserve. I have spent the past three months planning and more recently working on the site with Clean Up UK and neighbours on Nextdoor. What kinds of activity are your neighbours helping with? As the reserve has been derelict for some time, the top priority has been to clean the site by litter picking and removing all rubbish. Unfortunately, the site was used by drug users and we have made a real effort to dispose of any needles using a needle box and destroying them in the correct manner. Neighbours have come together to collect litter and clear the overgrowth, which has enabled us to construct the log path and stairway. As we’ve worked together, we’ve discussed lots of exciting projects planned for the reserve and these include a potential composting site, an amphibious area with a pond, insect motels, wildlife and plant species cataloguing as well as a mural from a local artist! Did you need any special planning permissions from the council? Yes, I had to get written permission from Haringey Council to act as the project manager and sought permission from the Highways agency to install a storage unit for community tools. I had to get insurance for anyone working on the site and I did this via TCV (https://www.tcv.org.uk/). The insurance covers anyone engaged in any work whilst on site. Also, anyone that visits the site must sign in in case of any emergencies. So, do neighbours need to bring tools and special equipment to participate? We recommend neighbours wear comfortable clothing, bring gloves and ideally boots but it’s not essential. We have tools on site which include spades, shovels, secateurs, litter pickers, bin bags and hoes.  If neighbours have tools and can bring them, they are very welcome too. We really needed a wheelbarrow last week! If someone can’t make every Sunday, do you give them extra hard work the next time they come?! Absolutely not, I believe people of all walks of life can provide various skills that would be beneficial to the site and to other people to learn about different things. So no matter what skill set you have there is and will be various things for people to do! This way, I believe that nobody will feel left out and they would be comfortable in what they are doing – it’s such a nice way to meet people locally. Why is it important for the community to get involved with this project? The Westbury Banks Nature Reserve is a community lead project and a green space for the Noel Park estate and beyond! Environmentally, I would encourage anyone to take more notice of their surroundings and look after what they have before it’s too late! How can Nextdoor help you? Nextdoor has provided me with a tool to contact people that live nearby about something I think is important and that they could very easily become involved in. It’s easy to use, I just post an event and attach photos to a post to keep neighbours up to date. We’ve received plenty of support. If someone were reading this and wanted to start their own project, what advice would you give them? I would dedicate a lot of time to research and planning. Ensure you cover everything prior to doing any work on a site. Ensure you have written permission from your local authority. Engage the local community to judge interest levels. Make sure your covered with the correct insurance – TCV (https://www.tcv.org.uk/) is a great starting point! Look into various funding and pick whichever is suitable. Finally, stick with your project, devise a plan and slowly but surely the community will come together to help make your project a success. Good luck everyone!

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