Ambazonia

When you step out of your front door and walk away from your home, you often have no idea where you might end up or what you will find. So, one Saturday morning I went on a venture to London and when you go there, you invariably find something of interest. I was passing through Parliament Square, across the road from the Houses of Parliament and I discovered a group of black African people gathering Some of them had flags and on the flags was the name “Ambazonia”. As a journalist I took pictures.                     Less than an hour after that, I came across them again. Many were strewn across Whitehall outside of Downing Street and stopping traffic.

Please watch the video.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3CjfXXZOHQ

The New State of Ambazonia

The new name, Ambazonia, is derived from the name of the bay on their coastline, Ambas Bay and has also been referred to as being Amba Land. It is situated in the South West of Cameroon and is mainly English speaking as was the North of the country which became a part of Nigeria in 1961.           Ambazonia or South Cameroons declared independence from Cameroon (West Africa) in September 2017. It followed escalating unrest that culminated in the main Cameroon government carrying out a series of brutal attacks that have been described as genocidal in nature. President Paul Biya has been president since 1982. That is 37 years. He would have to know what was going on, so he cannot wash his hands of the crimes being committed against these people. In fact, some of his language has led Cameroons to fear being ethnically cleansed. There have been videos, pictures and reports produced to support the claims. These included indiscriminate killing, wholesale burning of villages, rapes and humiliating acts. A petition by South Cameroons was presented to the United Nations and provided details of police raping students at a university.

Cause of the Divide

                    The South Cameroons are English-speaking citizens of South Cameroons while the rest of Cameroon is French speaking and this is the crux of the matter. The English citizens feel strongly, and not without justification, that they are being treated as second class citizens. From being blatantly penalized in the education system for being English speaking, things have degenerated into barbaric attacks. People have had their homes torched and their young people murdered. Like a lot of third world states, Cameroon has been in receipt of large amounts of Foreign Aid from the United Nations. That seems to have stopped. Only to be replaced by support from France.                   Like a number of places in West Africa, Cameroon has suffered vicious attacks by the dreaded Boko Haram, an extremist Islamic group renowned for their violent attacks, especially against children. While they kidnap girls, boys suffer machete attacks and being burned alive. To combat this, Cameroon has developed its own special forces unit, presumably receiving specialist training from the French military. The Cameroon special forces have quickly gained a reputation for being just as brutal as Boko Haram. The French authorities are allegedly taking the lead in resolving the issue in South Cameroons. How they are doing that is uncertain. The British role in the matter is to “Monitor the situation.”   Meanwhile, ten leaders of the Ambazonia separatist movement were arrested whilst in exile in Nigeria a year ago. They have been facing a Yaounde military tribunal, but have refused to identify as Cameroons. Instead there have been calls for them to be returned to the sanctuary of Nigeria.    

In writing this article, there are big gaps in the available information, so this is pieced together from what I have found so far.

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Death of a Nation

James Williams: When everything you have been taught is a lie.  

THE MYTH OF NIXON’S “SOUTHERN STRATEGY”

BY

DINESH D’SOUSA

Originally posted at The Hill
Save America1 Lincoln united his party and saved America from the Democrats for the first time. Can Trump—and we—come together and save America for the second time? [wpvideo u9AmgALj] The Democratic Party’s claim to be the party of the good guys, while the Republicans are the party of the bad guys, hinges on the tale of Richard Nixon’s so-called Southern Strategy. According to this narrative, advanced by progressive historians, Nixon orchestrated a party switch on civil rights by converting the racists in the Democratic Party—the infamous Dixiecrats—into Republicans. And now, according to a recent article in The New Republic, President Trump is the “true heir, the beneficiary of the policies the party has pursued for more than half a century.” Yes, this story is in the textbooks and on the history channel and regularly repeated in the media, but is it true? First, no one has ever given a single example of an explicitly racist pitch by Nixon during his long career. One might expect that a racist appeal to the Deep South actually would have to be made, and to be understood as such. Yet, quite evidently none was. [gallery ids="45963,45964" type="rectangular"] So progressives insist that Nixon made a racist “dog whistle” appeal to Deep South voters. Evidently he spoke to them in a kind of code. Really? Is it plausible that Nixon figured out how to communicate with Deep South racists in a secret language? Do Deep South bigots, like dogs, have some kind of heightened awareness of racial messages—messages that are somehow indecipherable to the media and the rest of the country? This seems unlikely, but let’s consider the possibility. Progressives insist that Nixon’s appeals to drugs and law and order were coded racist messaging. Yet when Nixon ran for president in 1968 the main issue was the Vietnam War. One popular Republican slogan of the period described the Democrats as the party of “acid, amnesty, and abortion.” Clearly there is no suggestion here of race. Nixon’s references to drugs and law and order in 1968 were quite obviously directed at the antiwar protesters who had just disrupted the Democratic Convention in Chicago. His target was radical activists such as Abbie Hoffman and Bill Ayers. Nixon scorned the hippies, champions of the drug culture such as Timothy Leary, and draft-dodgers who fled to Canada. The vast majority of these people were white. Nixon had an excellent record on civil rights. He supported the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. He was an avid champion of the desegregation of public schools. The progressive columnist Tom Wicker wrote in the New York Times, “There’s no doubt about it—the Nixon administration accomplished more in 1970 to desegregate Southern school systems than had been done in the 16 previous years or probably since. There’s no doubt either that it was Richard Nixon personally who conceived and led the administration’s desegregation effort.” Upon his taking office in 1969, Nixon also put into effect America’s first affirmative action program. Dubbed the Philadelphia Plan, it imposed racial goals and timetables on the building trade unions, first in Philadelphia and then elsewhere. Now, would a man seeking to build an electoral base of Deep South white supremacists actually promote the first program to legally discriminate in favor of blacks? This is absurd. Nixon barely campaigned in the Deep South. His strategy, as outlined by Kevin Phillips in his classic work, The Emerging Republican Majority, was to target the Sunbelt, the vast swath of territory stretching from Florida to Nixon’s native California. This included what Phillips terms the Outer or Peripheral South. Nixon recognized the South was changing. It was becoming more industrialized, with many northerners moving to the Sunbelt. Nixon’s focus, Phillips writes, was on the non-racist, upwardly-mobile, largely urban voters of the Outer or Peripheral South. Nixon won these voters, and he lost the Deep South, which went to Democratic segregationist George Wallace. And how many racist Dixiecrats did Nixon win for the GOP? Turns out, virtually none. Among the racist Dixiecrats, Strom Thurmond of South Carolina was the sole senator to defect to the Republicans—and he did this long before Nixon’s time. Only one Dixiecrat congressman, Albert Watson of South Carolina, switched to the GOP. The rest, more than 200 Dixiecrat senators, congressmen, governors and high elected officials, all stayed in the Democratic Party. The progressive notion of a Dixiecrat switch is a myth. Yet it is myth that continues to be promoted, using dubious case examples. Though the late Sens. Jesse Helms of North Carolina and John Tower of Texas and former Mississippi Sen. Trent Lott all switched from the Democratic Party to the GOP, none of these men was a Dixiecrat. The South, as a whole, became Republican during the 1980s and 1990s. This had nothing to do with Nixon; it was because of Ronald Reagan and former House Speaker Newt Gingrich’s Contract with America. The conservative appeal to patriotism, anti-communism, free markets, pro-life and Christianity had far more to do with the South’s movement into the GOP camp than anything related to race. [gallery ids="45965,45967" type="rectangular"] Yet the myth of Nixon’s Southern Strategy endures—not because it’s true, but because it conveniently serves to exculpate the crimes of the Democratic Party. Somehow the party that promoted slavery, segregation, Jim Crow and racial terrorism gets to wipe its slate clean by pretending that, with Nixon’s connivance, the Republicans stole all their racists. It’s time we recognize this excuse for what it is: one more Democratic big lie.

LINKS

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NEW MEXICO JIHADI TRAINING CAMP FOR CHILDREN SHUT DOWN

ONE CHILD’S BODY FOUND SOURCE from Brainstain

Several days ago, a mysterious compound was discovered in the New Mexico desert, which has since been revealed by authorities as a Muslim Jihadi training facility, teaching child students to conduct mass shootings. Of course, such revelations have not been widely covered by the mainstream media.

New Mexico ArrestExtremist Muslim father, Siraj Wahhaj, 39, was arrested at the compound in Amalia, New Mexico, on Friday last week, where they discovered 11 starving children, who were learning how to use and shoot guns.

Police revealed the compound was used to teach children how to practice and hone their craft in school shootings, but were saved when the police raided the property after earlier intercepting a message which was meant for somebody else, which stated that all the children were starving.

Siraj Wahhaj is the son of a prominent Imam in New York City, who had been on the run since December, when he vanished with his 3-year old disabled son, AG. This Imam has been said by liberal Democrat Linda Sarsour to be her mentor, a man that was a co-conspirator in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, and one now wonders how much Linda Sarsour knew about this Jihadi training camp on American soil.

Hopefully an investigation into the dark motives of Linda Sarsour will come to light, and her subsequent arrest will be in development for condoning Jihad and terrorism in America.

5New Mexico Sarsour

Last year at an ISNA conference, Linda Sarsour said, “I want to thank my favourite person in this room, Imam Siraj Wahhaj, who has been a mentor, motivator, and encourager of mine.”

https://youtu.be/1iBFgVKJ2u4

Sirraj’s father is Imam Siraj Wahhaj, who has a terrorist past, and Sirraj Wahhaj has just been caught training 11 children to conduct mass shootings in America. Keep in mind that this is a person that Linda Sarsour openly condones and has vied for in her previous speeches.

[gallery ids="45889,45891" type="rectangular"]

Wahhaj, 39, was arrested in Amalia, along with his brother-in-law, wife, and two sisters, along with the 11 children who were taken into custody and safety.

Wahhaj was heavily armed with an AR-15 and four pistols when police stormed the compound to arrest him. In court documents filed on Wednesday, prosecutors claim that Siraj was using the weapons to train children to perform mass school shootings.

4New Mexico Training Camp2 The compound is close to the Colorado border, and the FBI had been watching the compound for months, after being led to it in their hunt for the 3-year old disabled son, AG Wahhaj, who vanished back in December of 2017, along with Siraj Wahhaj. The FBI had not raided the compound earlier, as they did not have a warrant, nor was AG physically there at the compound. However, police now fear that a body of a child found on the premises may be AG, although the body has not been formally identified. Neighbours to the compound said that they had heard gun fire coming from the camp in recent months, and that the 11 children present at the compound, had also not been seen in months. Tyler Anderson, 41, a mechanic that lives near the site, said that Wahhaj had arrived in December with enough money to buy groceries and even enough construction tools to build the home. Anderson said, “We just figured they were doing what we were doing, getting a piece of land and getting off the grid.” Lucas Morton, who is married to one of the sisters, Subhanah Wahhaj, owns the land where the family lived and helped to build the compound. Lucas started to complain to authorities once the compound encroached on his land, stating, “I started to try and kick them off about three months ago and everything I tried to do kept getting knocked down.” [gallery ids="45892,45893" type="rectangular"] The children aged 1-15-years old were taken into government custody on Friday, and they were filthy and had not eaten in days. The message that was intercepted by police that led them to raid the compound read, “‘We are starving and we need food and water.” This information was divulged yesterday whilst prosecutors pleaded with a judge not to give Wahhaj bail, where he now stands for the charges of child abduction and child neglect. The police have yet to file charges for the discovery of a body on the camp site – a body of a child, that they believe to be Wahhaj’s son, AG. At a press conference on Tuesday, Taos County Sheriff Jeffrey Hogrefe held back tears and said, “‘We discovered the remains yesterday on Abdul’s fourth birthday.” Siraj Wahhaj is the son of prominent terrorist, Imam Siraj Wahhaj (and mentor to Linda Sarsour), who’s now been arrested, along with Hujrah and Subhanah Wahhaj, and his wife, Jany Leveille. All the three women were charged with child abuse on Sunday, but were seemingly brainwashed and intimidated by Wahhaj. Also charged was Lucas Morton, Subhanah’s husband, for harbouring a fugitive. The terrorist camp has now been shut down, but as to how deep this case will go is anyone’s guess. We can hope that it concludes with the arrest of Linda Sarsour for “treason”, and also unlocks the key to take down more Muslim extremists in America, that are seemingly associated with the Democrat party. [simple-payment id=”886″] [contact-form][contact-field label=”Name” type=”name” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Email” type=”email” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Comment” type=”textarea” required=”1″ /][/contact-form]]]>

Teen Boy Missing For 3 Years Finally Returns Home. But …

Everything Is Not As It Seems By Ryan Unger

Story provided by Boredom Therapy Staff

Nicholas Barclay was a young boy from San Antonio, Texas, who had a troubled family life. According to those closest to him, he frequently fought with his parents and teachers, and he would often act out aggressively toward those around him. When a young boy from Texas went missing in 1994, his family was distraught. A few years later, however, he was found—in a different country. His family was ecstatic by the turn of events, but it soon turned out that not all was as it seemed. Barclay4 Nicholas had even gotten himself into enough trouble that he had a court hearing scheduled due to his disruptive behavior. Little did his family know, however, Nicholas would never make it to the hearing. The night before Nicholas was scheduled to appear in court, he went out to play basketball with a few friends. After the game was over, the boys all returned home, but Nicholas was never seen again.  Nicholas’s family initially assumed he ran away to avoid the court hearing, but as time went on, they realized he was missing. Nearby counties were alerted, and flyers were distributed, but sadly no one was able to offer any clues as to his whereabouts. Barclay2 Finally, on an otherwise normal morning in 1997—a full three years after Nicholas went missing—the Barclay family received a phone call from authorities that left them stunned. The police said they’d found Nicholas! They explained that a young man claiming to be Nicholas was found in a small town in Spain. It was the miracle the family had been awaiting for three exhausting years. Nicholas was immediately put on a plane and sent back to Texas to reunite with his eager family.  Barclay3 Both the family and police desperately wanted to find out what happened three years earlier. Nicholas claimed that he’d been kidnapped and immediately put on a plane to Europe where he was sold into a child sex-trafficking ring. Police in Spain found him, he said, only after he’d escaped. It’s understandable that such a traumatic event would change a person, but the boy’s mother immediately noticed some off: his hair and eye color were, oddly, different. Nicholas claimed his captors dyed his hair and medically changed the color of his eyes to hide his identity. Barclay5  As unusual as the differences were, his family firmly believed their son had returned home, even if some family members had their doubts. However, one private investigator named Charlie Parker found the whole story suspicious… Charlie didn’t believe the kidnappers were physically able to change the boy’s eye color. Also, if what Nicholas said was true, the horrific events he lived through would have most certainly caused him to become withdrawn—but that wasn’t the case at all. Barclay7 Charlie and other investigators closely examined photos of Nicholas before and after his alleged kidnapping. Besides the eye and hair change, he noticed one more difference that resulted in an alarming breakthrough. It was the ears! Ears, like fingerprints, are completely unique to an individual, and this young man’s ears didn’t match the boy who disappeared three years earlier. But, if the person they found wasn’t Nicholas Barclay, who exactly were investigators talking to? [gallery ids="40125,40128,40129" type="rectangular"] It was actually a 23-year-old Frenchman named Frederic Bourdin who was posing as the 16-year-old boy. Frederic was also known as “the Chameleon” by Interpol, the world’s largest police organization. Frederic was a wanted criminal who impersonated missing children, and over the course of his life, he had masqueraded as hundreds of different personalities—his most recent being Nicholas Barclay. [gallery ids="40126,40127" type="rectangular"] Frederic apparently got the idea to impersonate the missing boy when the Spanish police who found him said he bore a striking resemblance. That was all he needed to hear to pull off his next stunt. Charlie Parker immediately told the Barclay family what he and the rest of the investigators discovered. They were in complete dismay at the news. How had they not realized this grown man wasn’t actually Nicholas? Nicholas’s uncle Jason apparently began to doubt the authenticity of his “nephew” after he arrived home; shortly before Jason was interviewed, however, he’d passed away. After Frederic’s outing by police, the Frenchman proposed his own outrageous theory. Frederic claimed the Barclay family knew he wasn’t their son all along, and the reason they accepted him was to cover up his murder! As absurd as it was, Charlie Parker still wanted to investigate the claim. Was the young boy’s aggressive nature too much for his family? Charlie never found conclusive evidence that the Barclays had a hand in Nicholas’s disappearance. He even want as far as digging through the Barclays’ backyard in search of a body, but he came up empty-handed. Barclay13  Even though he hadn’t found any substantial evidence, Charlie didn’t quite believe the Barclay family was completely innocent in Nicholas’s disappearance. The family, of course, said otherwise, but with all the mysterious circumstances surrounding the case, no one could be sure. This case is far more than just bizarre, it’s almost unreal. Who knows if the truth behind what happened to Nicholas Barclay will ever come out, but until then, Charlie Parker will keep looking for clues.

COMMENT

This mystery case reeks of having something terribly wrong. Nicholas had tattoos. He actually looks nothing like Frederic and what about DNA testing? Charlie Parker was absolutely right to be suspicious, but I would take it a stage further. According to the report, young Nicholas was troubled and expressed his problems through aggression. This is one of the symptoms of a child being abused. What if he was being sexually abused? What if his outward aggression was due to this? What if his abuser decided to murder him because he might reveal all in his impending court case? Could it be that someone in his family circle was a psychopath? Psychopaths are ultra selfish people and tend to regard others, including their own children, as inanimate objects. It would be nothing for such a person to kill their own. It was also ironic that his uncle passed away shortly after the impostor arrived. Okay, people die naturally, but what if he was helped. There are so many loose ends in this story, including were any of the family questioned over the possible murder of young Nicholas? Will the truth ever be known? Barclay14   [simple-payment id=”921″] [contact-form][contact-field label=”Name” type=”name” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Email” type=”email” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Comment” type=”textarea” required=”1″ /][/contact-form]]]>

Writing Europeans Out of Their Own History

Mark Collett The indigenous European people are being written out of their own history, folklore and mythology by those who wish to re-write history and strip Europeans of their traditions and culture in order to propagate the lie that Europe was always multicultural and that people who did not originate in Europe have played pivotal roles in European history, and crucially that non-Europeans have a right to stake their claim to European soil. My book, The Fall of Western Man is now available. It is available as a FREE eBook and also in hardback and paperback editions. The Official Website: http://www.thefallofwesternman.com/ FREE eBook download: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3cc… Hardback Edition: http://www.lulu.com/shop/mark-collett… Paperback Edition: http://amzn.eu/9LaS7HN https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fSBx0pqTSL0

COMMENT

There is so much to write on this subject. As the saying goes: “it’s like being a mosquito in a nudist colony.” This rant below is just a snapshot of the scale of a problem that threatens the survival of modern civilization. In case anyone has been asleep, there has been a sustained attack on men as a group for the past 40 years, but it has been pitched along the lines of group rivalry where men are portrayed and treated as oppressors and women as oppressed. This attack has decimated families and, in the US, it has seen the devastating decline in the welfare of the black family. This phenomenon has created resentful divisions where the oppressed groups see themselves as unfairly abused victims. But, it has not stopped there. We have seen the fracturing of western societies where all variations of difference between people becomes amplified. A whole lexicon of gender pronouns has become a ridiculous parody of mental imprisonment to the victim narrative. Ever more terms are used to explain exemplify a particular type of oppression. In this article, it is ‘Cultural Appropriation’. The erasing of whites in history is part of a malevolent agenda and the forerunner to the elimination of whites in reality. With falling birthrates and the invasion by hundreds of thousands of migrants from those who are hostile to western culture and values the future looks increasingly bleak. We are on the eve of the fall of empire. The same fate that other empires have endured before us and, when it happens, it ain’t pretty. Our political leaders have and are betraying us. The media enforces a bigoted victim narrative while distracting us with entertainment. We MUST wake up. Do not pay money to the BBC. Do not buy newspapers. Do not contribute to big globalist charities. Do not cooperate with anyone who wants to shut you down. Never apologize to them anymore than you would to a bully. Those who are pursuing these shutdowns of free expression run on an authoritarian ticket and at the end of the track are the gulags and death camps. Having read a few books on the Russian Revolution of 1917, one of the reflections I noted was that in 1900, people would never have thought things could turn out that bad just a few years later. As Mark Collett says: learn your history. Embrace your culture. Be proud of your heritage. Find out all the good that white people have done and how our ancestors suffered to bring us all the comforts we enjoy, but DO NOT HATE those the evil Far Leftists want you to hate. Instead, spend your efforts ousting them from all the key positions they have taken over and never allow them to take over anything. RESIST   DEFY   REFUSE TO COOPERATE   NEVER APOLOGIZE [gallery ids="22465,22466,22467,22468,22469,22470,22471,22472,22473,22474,22475,22476,22477,22478,22479,22480,22481,22482,22483,22484,22485,22486" type="rectangular"]]]>

ISLAM vs CHRISTIANITY

Graphic map showing the historic advance of Islam   [wpvideo bqwlDLCu]   [simple-payment id=”741″]   [contact-form][contact-field label=”Name” type=”name” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Email” type=”email” required=”1″ /][contact-field label=”Website” type=”url” /][contact-field label=”Comment” type=”textarea” required=”1″ /][/contact-form]]]>

KEN LAM: THE COP WHO DIDN'T FIRE

rd April 2018, Alek Minassian, took a large white van and drove on the Toronto sidewalks for about one and half miles mowing anyone in his path. By the time he had finished his horror drive, 10 people laid dead with 15 left devastatingly injured, some of whom may yet die. The video is a compendium of reports explaining what happened and offers some background information about the attacker. James Williams gives his take in the second half of the video saying we should first look into the psychology of what led to this tragedy. He also explains that in matters of crisis, often a hero steps forward. In this incident that hero was police officer, Ken Lam who remained calm and took down the killer without firing a shot in spite of tremendous provocation to fire. [wpvideo M3oa54of]]]>

The Poor Life of An Apprentice Chimney Sweep – The History of Children at Work Part 5 of 5

The circumstances of these children were publicized, but still the abuses continued Produced by: Owlcation If the children survived long enough to no longer fit into chimneys, and didn’t die from the chimney sweep’s cancer, they would become journeymen, and begin supervising the apprentices for the master sweeper. Or they would be kicked out of the master chimney sweep’s home with no money, deformed and covered in soot. If they were dumped into the streets, nobody was interested in hiring them, even for heavy labor, because their deformed legs, arms and backs made them look weak. So the children who weren’t allowed to become journeymen or master sweepers often became petty criminals. The circumstances of children sweep apprentices were well known and their various unhappy fates also known by the authorities. Their deaths and the court testimonies of the cruelties of the few master chimney sweeps that made it to court were publicized in the papers. However, it was still very difficult to find the support to end using children to sweep chimneys. Gradually, court cases made it all too obvious that the master sweepers, for the most part, were not people to entrust with raising and training children. These cases included many child fatalities after they were forced up clogged or burning chimneys to clean them, or beaten to death for being too afraid to go up them. A mechanical chimney sweeper was invented in 1802, but many people would not allow it to be used in their homes. If they had chimneys that had many corners in them, they didn’t want the expense of making the corners into bends that the brush could navigate. They were also very certain that the mechanical sweeper could not do the good job that a human could. The fact that the human who went up the chimney was a small and abused child was both known and ignored by the people who hired chimney sweeps. The only difference knowing the brutality of these children’s lives seemed to make was that the children could sometimes beg a small coin, some clothes or an old pair of shoes from the mistress of the house. The begging was encourage by the masters, because it saved on clothing expenses. Everything was, more often than not, then taken from the children. Clothing that couldn’t be used was sold. (Having improper clothing castoffs given to them was where some chimney sweeps found the top hats that became a mark of their trade.) After the invention of the mechanical sweeper, the master sweeps who stopped using children and began to use the mechanical sweepers had a difficult time staying in business. This was even though they reported that the brushes did as good a job as the children.

Even the sympathetic were not willing to let the boys stop climbing chimneys

The Irish Farmers’ Journal, ever watchful for reports about climbing boys, referred to a leaflet by S. Porter of Wallbrook, entitled: An Appeal to the Humanity of the British Public. This quoted statements about deaths, burns and suffocation of six boys in 1816 and eight in 1818. One report was about a child of five years old, another about a boy who was “dug out – quite dead” from an Edinburgh flue: “the most barbarous means were used to drag him down:. This journal reported in March 1819 that the Bill to do away with the employment of climbing boys had been lost; the editor in spite of his humanity would not have recommended total abolition of climbing because he was of the opinion that some chimneys were impossible to clean by machines. Chimney14.jpg  

Finally, for English children, being an apprentice chimney sweep ended

The treatment of these children was gradually improved over many years through a string of Acts passed by Parliament. First, a minimum legal age for a sweep’s apprentice was created, then increased. Then the number of children a master sweeper could apprentice was limited to six. Other limits were put in place as the 73 years after the invention of the mechanical sweep passed. However, for many of the Acts, the enforcement also had to be pushed, because people, including the authorities, held on to their belief that chimneys were cleaner when they were cleaned by people. Many advocates, such as the Earl of Shaftesbury and Dr. George Phillips, worked diligently for decades on the children’s behalf. These advocates lobbied for the children, made pamphlets and also made sure that some of the many court cases for abuse and manslaughter that were brought against master sweeps who forced frightened children up hazardous chimneys were also printed in the papers. The pamphlets and publicized court cases slowly began to reduce the resistance of the public to using mechanical sweepers. Then, in the early 1870’s, several boys died in chimneys; the youngest boy was 7 years old. Finally, 12 year old George Brewster was made to climb a chimney at Fulbourn Hospital. He became stuck, and suffocated. This was the tipping point. Lord Shaftsbury had reported the other boys’ deaths to Parliament. Finally, he used George Brewster’s death (and his master light sentence of six months’ hard labor) to push the Chimney Sweepers Act of 1875 – and to push its proper enforcement. This act set the lower age limit for chimney sweeps at 21, and demanded the registration of all chimney sweeps with the local police. Unlike the Acts before it, this Act was properly supervised. This meant that George Brewster was the last child apprentice chimney sweep to die on the job. While the use of small children in England was eventually stopped in 1875, it continued in other countries for many more years. The only two advantages that those children had were that they didn’t clean very small chimneys, and they did not get chimney sweeper’s cancer.In most other ways, they had the same problems and the same fates as the English children had endured. Very little is known about the children who were chimney sweeps in the U.S., because black children were used in this trade. White children usually worked in the textile mills, coal mines, and other locations. Where white children were used, black children would not normally be given jobs. And because black children were chimney sweeps in the United States, very little is known about their profession and what they endured before child labour laws were enacted.  

COMMENT and Epilogue

In 1875, the death of 12-year-old chimney sweep George Brewster became the catalyst that finally pushed through legislation that outlawed the cruel exploitation of boys.

His master, William Wyer, had sent poor George Brewster into one of the chimneys in Fulbourn Hospital where he became stuck and distressed. A wall had to be torn down to free George from his narrow prison. The boy died shortly afterwards. Wyer was charged and found guilty of manslaughter, but George Brewster became the last child chimney sweep in England to die in a chimney.

This obscene part of British (and European) history is one reason among many that undermines the claim that males oppressed females and white people were privileged. Times were hard and brutal for most people, men, women and children. Plagues, wars, starvation and bitter cold were all part of what it was like in Britain and Europe for a large part of the time.

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Chimney2 Owlcation

                                            THE END

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The Poor Life of An Apprentice Chimney Sweep – The History of Children at Work Part 4 of 5

There were many ways for the children to die on the job Produced by: Owlcation for Education The children also became stuck in the chimneys, and many died of suffocation from slipping and being jammed too tight to breathe, or from huge deposits of soot and ash dumping on them. Whether or not the child was alive, a mason was called to open the chimney and remove him. From their own experiences and from hearing about the deaths of other apprentices, the children were well aware of these hazards, and, especially the younger ones, were often frightened of going up into the heat and the claustrophobic dark. They would go into the chimney because they were stuffed up into it by a demanding master or journeyman. However, they would freeze once inside the chimney and wouldn’t go any further. They also wouldn’t come out, because they knew they would be beaten. The master sweepers solved this problem by either lighting straw below the children who had been stuffed up the chimney, or sending another child up to prick the first child’s feet with pins. The term “lighting a fire under him” is said to have come from the master sweepers lighting straw under boys in chimneys to make them start moving and cleaning upward away from the fire. The children not only died from burns and suffocation, they died from long falls, either back down the chimney itself, or after reaching the very top. They cleaned and climbed the chimney to the very top, including the part that was sticking high up out of the roof. Once in a while, the clay chimney tops – called “pots” – were cracked or poorly fitted. The boys would climb up into them, and a bad pot would either break or fall off the roof, plunging both boy and down two, three or even four stories onto the cobblestone street or courtyard below. The danger of the chimney flues being too much of a maze, or the child going back down the wrong flue to a fire or dead-end that they couldn’t back up from have been mentioned. Usually, this happened to new children and, if they survived, they didn’t need to be frightened like that many times to build a mental map of their climbs in the claustrophobic darkness. [gallery ids="1566,1567" type="rectangular"]  

The apprentice chimney sweeps not only had to contend with the chimneys, they had to contend with the weather

The hazards outside of the chimneys were also constant. For the most part, the ailments the children suffered as a result of their work went untreated. They had chronic sore eyes, including some blindness, from the constant soot particles in their eyes. They had chronic respiratory illnesses, and died of those, especially when they were out in the winter months for long hours. Their spines, arms and legs would become deformed from poor nutrition, and from spending many long hours in unnatural positions while their soft bones were still growing. Their knee joints became deformed from the long hours they spent each day with their body weight pressing their knees against the chimney walls. Their ankles were chronically swollen from the pressure they had to maintain on them while their feet were vertical against the opposite chimney walls. Their backs not only became twisted from the scraping and unnatural positions inside the tight chimneys, but from carrying soot bags from every job back to the master’s courtyard. These bags were much too heavy for small children. The children not only used their blankets to carry soot, but they also used them as their only winter clothing. Once they were proven reliable, they were often expected to go by themselves to sweep chimneys at 5 or 6 in the morning, before households heated the chimneys for the day. With the pain they already had in their arms, legs, feet and backs, the cold was especially bad for them. “Chillblains”, which is pain, blistering and itching from the cold due to reduced circulation, was a common complaint. Around Christmastime, pain from the cold was especially troubling, because that was a very busy time of year, no matter how cold it was. Households waited longer than usual to have their chimneys cleaned, so they could do it immediately before the heavy cooking at Christmas. As a result, the children were up earlier and worked later than usual, and the chimneys were much more loaded with soot and creosote. They went from the cold outside to the tight, suffocating chimneys inside many times a day. Some of the weaker, worse-dressed children died of exposure in the coldest months. Chimney13

Sir Percival Pott, commenting on apprentice chimney sweeps, 1776

” The fate of these people seems peculiarly hard…they are treated with great brutality.. they are thrust up narrow and sometimes hot chimnies, [sic] where they are bruised burned and almost suffocated; and when they get to puberty they become … liable to a most noisome, painful and fatal disease.”

If boys reached puberty, it could hold one more tragedy for them

For the boys, their treatment led to another tragedy. Coal soot found its way into the folds of skin on a boy’s scrotal sac due to loose clothing and climbing in the nude. Because the soot was not washed off for months at a time over the years, many of the boys developed scrotal cancer, called “chimney sweep’s cancer” about the time they entered puberty. This was the first occupation-caused disease reported during the Industrial Revolution. Sir Percival Pott studied and reported it in 1775. The cancer started as a small sore spot on the surface of the scrotum. If it was seen by the boy while it was small – before it became and open sore – it was the custom in London for the boy to trap it between a split stick and cut the sore spot off with a razor. If he did this early enough, it could save his life. The sore was never seen by a doctor before it had been an open sore and was growing larger for some time. Then, before Sir Percival’s discovery, the doctor thought it was venereal disease, and the boy was given mercury to treat it. (As we know today, the mercury would inhibit the boy’s immune system, and the cancer would spread more quickly.) While the open sore was sometimes removed by the doctor, by that time, it was usually too late to save the boy. It ate away the scrotal sac and thigh skin and anal area, and progressed to the abdominal cavity. The unfortunate boy who had managed to survive climbing the hot, soot-filled and tight chimneys would then die a very painful death chworkhouses-are-not-nice-9-728

In Part 5: The circumstances of these children were publicized, but still the abuses continued. Even the sympathetic were not willing to let the boys stop climbing chimneys. Finally, for English children, being an apprentice chimney sweep ended.

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The Poor Life of An Apprentice Chimney Sweep – The History of Children at Work Part 3 of 5

Children were not only expected to put up with little care, but they were expected to find customers

Produced by Owlcation for Education

In London and other larger cities apprentice chimney sweeps usually fared the worst, not only because the competition was keener, but because the chimneys were smaller and taller.

Unfortunately, especially in London and other larger cities, master chimney sweeps kept as many children as they could keep alive; many sweeps didn’t want to spend more than would keep each child moving and earning money. Too many of the children were in rags, and seldom had shoes. To save money and to keep them small so they could climb small chimneys, they were often fed as little as possible.

The children were worked long hours, even the youngest of them, at 5 or 6 years old. (The youngest known apprentice was taken at 3 1/2 years.) Most sweepers didn’t like them below the age of 6, because they were considered too weak to climb tall chimneys or work long hours, and they would “go off”, or die, too easily. But taken at 6 they were small (and could be kept that way with poor feeding), strong enough to work and not nearly as likely to die.

Each child was given a blanket. The blanket was used during the day to haul soot after cleaning a chimney. The soot was valuable. It was dumped at the master chimney sweep’s courtyard, sifted of lumps and sold as “dust” fertilizer to farmers.

After the blanket was filled and emptied of soot on a regular basis during the day, the child slept under it at night. Sometimes a child and his companion apprentices slept on either straw or on top of another blanket full of soot, and they normally huddled together for warmth. This was so common that it had a term, “sleeping in the black”, because the child, clothes, skin and the blanket were all covered with soot.

Some children actually received the weekly bath outlined in the apprenticeship agreement. However, some were never bathed, and many followed a more common custom of 3 baths per year, at Whitsuntide (shortly after Easter), Goose Fair (early October) and Christmas.

In London, many sweeper apprentices had washed on their own in a local river, the Serpentine, until one of them drowned. Then the children were discouraged from bathing in it.

The master chimney sweep might have plenty of regular customers, or might have gone through the streets calling, “soot-o” and “sweep-o”, reminding people that it was time to clean the chimney to prevent the too-common chimney fires.

If a master sweep had several apprentices, the older ones would also walk the streets calling for clients. They would do this on their own, but their call was “weep, weep”. If someone hailed them for a job, they would either fetch the master’s journeyman to handle the transaction, or they would do it themselves and bring the money back to the master.

Depending on their circumstances, people tended to wait as long as they could before having the chimneys cleaned, to save on the expense. For the child, this meant that when the child went up the chimney, there was too often a great deal of soot. As he scraped it above him and it came down on his head, in that small space, it could surround his head and shoulders and suffocate him.

[gallery ids="1552,1553" type="rectangular"]

The apprentice chimney sweeps did work that was too dangerous for anyone to do.

When a master sweep was hired to do the job, the hearth fire would be put out. Then he would place a blanket across the front of the hearth. The child would take off any jacket or shoes. If the chimney was tight, the child would “buff it”, or climb the chimney in the nude. The child pulled his apprentice sweep cap over his face and hooked it under his chin. This was the only protection the child had against the great volumes of soot and any burning creosote that would fall on his face and body as he brushed and scraped the chimney above him. The larger chimneys were about 14″ square, and the smaller ones about 9″ by 14″. If there were bends or corners, which was normal, the child had to find a way to make it past the changes in direction within that small space. Some chimneys could even be as small as 7″, and only the very smallest children were used to clean those chimney flues. The chimneys were square or rectangular, and the child could maneuver his shoulders into the corners, which allowed for crawling up some surprisingly small chimneys. The child worked his way up the chimney, holding his soot brush in his right hand above his head, and using mainly his elbows, knees, ankles and back, like a caterpillar. He often had a metal scraper in the other hand to scrape away the hard creosote deposits that stuck to the chimney walls. When a child first began to climb chimneys, his elbows and knees would be badly scraped with every climb and would bleed profusely (children climbed anywhere from 4 to 20 chimneys a day). While a few of the more humane master sweepers provided the children with knee and elbow pads, most solved this problem by “hardening” the child’s elbows and knees. This involved standing the child next to a hot fire and scraping his scraped knees and elbows with a rough brush dipped in brine. Needless to say, it was extremely painful, and many children were either beaten or bribed when they cried and tried to get away from the brush. Some children’s elbows and knees didn’t harden for weeks, months or even years. Nevertheless, they received these brush and brine treatments regularly until the scraped and burned skin hardened. Being burned by chimneys that were still hot, or by smoldering soot and creosote when a chimney fire had begun were also very common for apprentice sweeps in London. If a household waited too long to have the chimneys cleaned, then a chimney fire began, the master sweep was called to take care of it. The master sweep would then send the child up the hot chimney to clean it out, burning embers and all. Because many children burned to death this way, the master sweep would often stand on the roof with a bucket of water to dump on the child if he cried out or if flames started above him. Chimney10 Chimney9

In Part 4:  There were many ways for the children to die on the job. The apprentice chimney sweeps not only had to contend with the chimneys, they had to contend with the weather. Sir Percival Pott’s comments on apprentice chimney sweeps, 1776. If boys reached puberty, it could hold one more tragedy for them.

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